Why I'm Vegan 

    Facts excerpted from the Pulitzer Prize nominated book Diet for a New America by John Robbins.
    Full documentation of every fact is in the book available from
    EarthSave.

    Index
    Energy Feedlot Sewage Nutrition
    World Hunger Topsoil Depletion Rainforest Destruction
    Food Groups Pesticides, Sterility Animal Factories
    Antibiotics   Athletic Performance


       
       

      Energy, True Cost

      Length of time the world's petroleum reserves would last if all human beings ate
      meat-centred diets: 13 years

      Length of time the world's petroleum reserves would last if all human beings ate a
      vegetarian diet: 260 years

      Principal reason for U.S. military intervention in Persian Gulf: Dependence on foreign oil

      Barrels of oil imported daily by U.S.: 6,800,000

      Percentage of energy return (as food energy per fossil energy expended) of most energy
      efficient factory farming of meat: 34.5%

      Percentage of energy return (as food energy per fossil energy expended) of least energy
      efficient plant food: 32.8%

      Pounds of soybeans produced by the amount of fossil fuel needed to produce 1 pound of
      feedlot beef: 40

      Percentage of raw materials consumed in U.S. for all purposes presently consumed to
      produce current meat-centred diet: 33

      Percentage of raw materials consumed in U.S. for all purposes needed to produce fully
      vegetarian diet: 2

      User of more than half of all water used for all purposes in the United States: Livestock production

      Quantity of water used in the production of the average cow sufficient to: Float a destroyer

      Water needed to produce 1 pound of wheat: 25 gallons

      Water needed to reduce 1 pound of meat: 2,500 gallons

      Cost of common hamburger meat if water used by meat industry was not subsidized by
      U.S. taxpayers: $35/pound

      Current cost for pound of protein from wheat: $1.50

      Current cost for pound of protein from beefsteak: $15.40

      Cost for pound of protein from beefsteak if U.S. taxpayers ceased subsidizing meat industry's
      use of water: $89

      Index
       
       

      Feedlot Sewage

      Production of excrement by total U.S. human population: 12,000 pounds/second

      Production of excrement by U.S. livestock: 250,000 pounds/second

      Sewage systems in U.S. cities: Common

      Sewage systems in U.S. feedlots: Nil

      Amount of waste produced annually by U.S. livestock in confinement operations which
      is not recycled: 1 billion tons

      Relative concentration of feedlot wastes compared to raw domestic sewage: Ten to
      several hundred times more highly concentrated Where feedlot waste often ends up: In our water

      Index
       
       

      Nutrition

      Number of U.S. medical schools: 125

      Number of U.S. medical schools with required course in nutrition: 30

      Training in nutrition received during 4 years of medical school by average
      U.S. physician: 2.5 hours

      How frequently a heart attack strikes in the U.S.: Every 25 seconds

      How frequently heart attack kills in U.S.: Every 45 seconds

      Most common cause of death in U.S.: Heart attack

      Risk of death from heart attack by average American man: 50%

      Risk of death from heart attack by average American vegetarian man: 15%

      Risk of death from heart attack by average American pure vegetarian man: 4%

      Amount you reduce your risk of heart attack by reducing your consumption of meat, dairy products,
      and eggs 10%: 9%

      Amount you reduce the risk of heart attack by reducing your consumption of meat, dairy products,
      and eggs by 50%: 45%

      Amount you reduce your risk of heart attack by reducing your consumption of meat, dairy products,
      and eggs by 100%: 90%

      Rise in blood cholesterol level from consuming 1 egg per day: 12%

      Rise in heart attack risk from 12% rise in blood cholesterol: 24%

      Meat, dairy, and egg industries claim there is no reason to be concerned about your
      blood cholesterol as long as it is: "normal"

      Your risk of dying of a disease caused by clogged arteries if your blood cholesterol is "normal":
      over 50%

      Your risk of dying of a disease caused by clogged arteries if you do not consume saturated fat and cholesterol: 5%

      Leading sources of saturated fat and cholesterol in American diets: Meat, dairy products, and eggs

      Hollywood celebrity paid by meat board to tout beef as "Real food for real people": James Garner

      Medical event experienced by James Garner in April, 1988: Quintuple coronary artery
      bypass surgery

      World populations with high meat intakes who do not have correspondingly high rates of
      colon cancer: None

      World populations with low meat intakes who do not have correspondingly low rates of
      colon cancer: None

      Increased risk of breast cancer for women who eat meat daily compared to women who eat meat
      less than once a week: 4 times higher

      Egg Board's advertising slogan: The incredible edible egg

      Photographs often accompanying the egg board's slogan: Young women in bathing suits,
      emphasizing the shape of their breasts

      Increased risk of breast cancer for women who eat eggs daily compared to women who eat
      eggs less than once a week: 3 times higher

      Milk Producers original ad campaign slogan: "Everybody needs milk"

      What the Federal Trade Commission called the "Everybody needs milk" slogan: "False,
      misleading and deceptive"

      Milk Producer's revised campaign slogan: "Milk has something for everybody"

      Increased risk of breast cancer for women who eat butter and cheese 3 or more times a week
      compared to women who eat these foods less than once a week: 3 times higher

      Part of female chicken's body that produces eggs: Ovaries

      Increased risk of fatal ovarian cancer for women who eat eggs 3 or more times a week
      compared to women who eat eggs less than once a week: 3 times higher

      Foods males in U.S. are conditioned to think of as "manly": Animal products

      Increased risk of fatal prostate cancer for men who consume meats, cheese, eggs, and milk daily compared to men who eat these foods sparingly or not at all: 3.6 times higher


       
       

      World Hunger

      Human population of United States: 243,000,000

      Number of human beings who could be fed by the grain and soybeans eaten by U.S. livestock: 1,300,000,000

      Sacred food of Native Americans: Corn

      Percentage of corn grown in United States eaten by human beings: 20
      Percentage of corn grown in United States eaten by livestock: 80

      Percentage of oats grown in United States eaten by livestock: 95

      Percentage of protein wasted by cycling grain through livestock: 90

      Percentage of carbohydrate wasted by cycling grain through livestock: 99

      Percentage of dietary fibre wasted by cycling grain through livestock: 100

      How frequently a child dies of starvation: Every 2 seconds

      Pounds of potatoes that can be grown on 1 acre of land: 20,000

      Pounds of beef that can be produced on 1 acre of land: 165

      Percentage of U.S. agricultural land used to produce beef: 56

      Pounds of grain and soybeans needed to produce 1 pound of feedlot beef: 16

      Pounds of protein fed to chickens to produce 1 pound of protein as chicken flesh: 5 pounds

      Pounds of protein fed to hogs to produce 1 pound of protein as hog flesh: 7.5 pounds

      Number of children who starve to death every day: 40,000

      Number of pure vegetarians who can be fed on the amount of land needed to feed
      1 person consuming meat-based diet: 20

      Number of people who will starve to death this year: 60,000,000

      Number of people who could be adequately fed by the grain saved if Americans reduced
      their intake of meat by 10%: 60,000,000

      Index
       
       

      Topsoil Depletion

      Historic cause of demise of many great civilizations: Topsoil depletion

      Percentage of original U.S. topsoil lost to date: 75

      Amount of U.S. cropland lost each year to soil erosion: 4,000,000 acres, the size of Connecticut

      Percentage of U.S. topsoil loss directly associated with livestock raising: 85

      Number of acres of U.S. forest which have been cleared to create cropland to produce a
      meat-centred diet: 260,000,000

      How often an acre of U.S. trees disappears: Every 8 seconds

      Amount of trees spared per year by each individual who switches to pure vegetarian diet: 1 acre

      Index
       
       

      Rainforest Destruction

      A driving force behind the destruction of the tropical rainforests: American meat habit

      Amount of meat imported annually by U.S. from Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala,
      Nicaragua, Honduras and Panama: 200,000,000 pounds

      Amount of meat eaten by average person in Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Nicaragua,
      Honduras, and Panama: Less than average American housecat

      Current rate of species extinction due to destruction of tropical rainforests and r
      elated habitats: 1,000/year

      Index
       
       

      Food Groups

      Recommended percentage of daily calories to be derived from protein according to
      World Health Organization: 4.5%

      Recommended percentage of daily calories to be derived from protein according to
      Food and Nutrition Board of the U.S.D.A: 6%

      Recommended percentage of daily calories to be derived from protein according to
      National Research Council: 8%

      Percentage of calories as protein in wheat: 17%

      Percentage of calories as protein in broccoli: 45%

      Percentage of calories as protein in rice: 8%

      Disease linked to inadequate protein consumption: Kwashiorkor

      Number of cases of kwashiorkor in United States: Virtually none

      Diseases linked to excess protein consumption: Osteoporosis and Kidney failure

      Number of cases of osteoporosis and kidney failure in the United States: Tens of millions

      The average measurable bone loss of female meat-eaters at age 65: 35%

      The average measurable bone loss of female vegetarians at age 65: 18%

      Person who popularized the concept of protein combining: Frances Moore Lappe

      Frances Moore lappe's updated research on a healthy, varied vegetarian diet: Protein
      combining is completely unnecessary.

      Health status of pure vegetarians from many populations of the world according to the Food and
      Nutrition Board of the National Academy of Sciences: Excellent

      The Meat Board tells us: Today's meats are low in fat.

      The Meat Board shows us: A serving of beef they claim has "only 300 calories". The Meat Board
      doesn't tell us: The serving of beef they show us is only 3 ounces (half the size of an average
      serving of beef) and has been surgically defatted with a scalpel.

      The dairy industry tells us: Whole milk is 3.5% fat The dairy industry doesn't tell us: That 3.5%
      figure is based on weight, and most of the weight in milk is water

      The dairy industry doesn't want us to know: The amount of calories as fat in whole milk is 50%

      Oscar Mayer tells us: It is "myth" that hot dogs are fatty
      Oscar Mayer demonstrates their point by favourably comparing the fattiness of hot dogs to such l
      ow fat bastions as: Margarine, mayonnaise, salad dressing, and cream cheese

      The Dairy Council tells us: Milk is nature's most perfect food
      The Dairy Council doesn't tell us: Milk is nature's food for a baby calf, who has four stomachs, will
      double its weight in 47 days and is destined to weigh 300 pounds within a year

      The Dairy Council tells children: To grow up big and strong, drink lots of milk
      The Dairy Council occasionally tells children: The enzyme necessary for digestion of milk is lactase
      The Dairy Council never tells children: 20% of caucasian children and 80% of Black children
      have no lactase in their intestines.

      The meat, dairy, and egg industries tell us: Animal products constitute 2 of the "Basic 4" food groups

      The meat, dairy, and egg industries don't tell us: There were originally 12 official basic food groups,
      before these industries applied enormous political pressure on behalf of their products

      The meat, dairy, and egg industries tell us: We are well-fed only with animal products

      The meat, dairy, and egg industries don't tell us: The diseases which are commonly prevented,
      consistently improved, and sometimes cured by low-fat vegetarian diet include:

      Strokes, Heart disease Kidney stones Breast cancer Prostate cancer
      Pancreatic cancer Cervical cancer Stomach cancer Diabetes Hypoglycemia
      Peptic ulcers Constipation Hiatal hernias Diverticulosis Gallstones
      Hypertension Salmonellosis Trichinosis Osteoporosis Colon cancer
      Ovarian cancer Endometrial cancer Kidney disease Hemorrhoids Obesity
      Asthma Irritable colon syndrome      

      Index
       
       

      Pesticides, Sterility

      Chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues in the U.S. diet supplied by meat: 55%

      Pesticide residues in the U.S. diet supplied by Dairy products: 23%

      Pesticide residues in U.S. diet supplied by vegetables: 6%

      Pesticide residues in U.S. diet supplied by fruits: 4%

      Pesticide residues in U.S. diet supplied by grains: 1%

      Percentage of U.S. mother's milk containing significant levels of DDT: 99%

      Percentage of U.S. vegetarian mother's milk containing significant levels of DDT: 8%

      Relative pesticide contamination in breast milk of meat-eating mothers compared to
      pesticide contamination in breast milk of vegetarian mothers: 35 times as high

      Percentage of male college students sterile in 1950: 0.5

      Percentage of male college students sterile in 1978: 25

      Sperm count of average American male compared to 30 years ago: Down 30%

      Principle reason for sterility and sperm count reduction in U.S. males: Chlorinated hydrocarbon
      pesticides, including dioxin, DDT, etc

      Percentage of chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticide residues in American diet attributable to meats,
      dairy products, fish and eggs: 94%

      The meat Board tells us not to be concerned about the dioxin and other pesticides in today's beef because: the quantities are too small

      The meat board doesn't want us to know: How potent dioxin and the other pesticides are.
      The meat board particularly doesn't want us to know: A mere ounce of dioxin could kill
      10 million people

      The USDA tells us: Our meat is inspected The USDA doesn't tell us: Less than 1 out of every
      quarter million slaughtered animals is tested for toxic chemical residues

      The dye used for many years by the USDA for many years to stamp meats "Choice", "Prime", or
      "U.S. No.1 USDA": Violet Dye No.1. Current status of Violet Dye No.1: Banned as
      proven carcinogen

      Index
       
       

      Animal Factories

      Wingspan of average leghorn chicken: 26 inches

      Space average leghorn chicken given in egg factories: 6 inches

      Number of 700 plus pounds pigs confined to space the size of a twin bed in typical factory farm: 3

      Reason today's veal is so tender: Calves never allowed to take single step

      Reason today's veal is whitish-pink: Calves force fed an anemia-producing diet

      McDonald's brags: 60 million sold McDonald's doesn't brag about: 50 million butchered

      McDonald's clown, Ronald McDonald, tells children: Hamburgers grow in hamburger patches and
      love to be eaten.
      McDonald's clown, Ronald McDonald,doesn't tell children: Hamburgers are ground up cows
      who've had their throats slit by machetes or their brains bashed in by sledgehammers
      Original actor to play Ronald McDonald: Jeff Juliano Diet now followed by Jeff Juliano: Vegetarian

      Number of animals killed for meat per hour in U.S.: 500,000

      Occupation with highest employee turnover rate in U.S.: Slaughterhouse worker

      Occupation with highest employee rate of injury in U.S.: Slaughterhouse worker

      Cost to render an animal unconscious prior to slaughter with captive bolt pistol so that process
      is done humanely: 1 penny

      Reason given by meat industry for not utilizing captive bolt pistol: Too expensive

      Index
       
       

      Antibiotics

      Percentage of total antibiotics used in U.S. fed routinely to livestock: 55

      Percentage of staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1960: 13

      Percentage of staphylococci infections resistant to penicillin in 1988: 91

      Reason: Breeding of antibiotic resistant bacteria in factory farms due to routine feeding of
      antibiotics to livestock

      Effectiveness of all "wonder-drug" antibiotics: Declining rapidly Reason: Feeding of antibiotics
      resistant bacteria in factory farms due to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock

      Response by entire European Economic Community to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock: Banned

      Response by American meat and pharmaceutical industries to routine feeding of antibiotics to livestock: Full and complete support

      Index
       
       

      Athletic Performance

      Only man to win ironman Triathlon more than twice: Dave Scott, 6 time winner

      Food choices of Dave Scott: Vegetarian World record holder for 24 hour triathlon (swim 4.8 miles,
      cycle 185 miles, run 52.5 miles):

      Sixto Linares Food choices of Sixto Linares: Strict vegetarian

      Athlete who most totally dominated Olympic sport in track and field history: Edwin Moses,
      undefeated in 8 years, 400 meter hurdles

      Food choices of Edwin Moses: Vegetarian

      Other notable vegetarian athletes: Stan Price: World record-bench press

      Robert Sweetgall: World's premier ultra-distance walker

      Paavo Nurmi: 20 World's records in distance running, 9 olympic medals

      Bill Pickering: World record swimming English Channel

      Murray Rose: World records 400 and 1500 meter freestyles

      Andreas Cahling: Winner Mr International body building championships

      Roy Hilligan: Winner Mr America body building championships

      Pierreo Verot: World's record for downhill endurance skiing

      Estelle Gray and Cherly Marek: World's record for cross-country tandem cycling

      James and Johnathon deDonato: World's record for distance butterfly stroke swimming

      Ridgely Abele: Winner of 8 national championships in Karate, including U.S. Karate
      Association World Championships

      Index

      Information about the Book

      For the complete documentation of all the facts contained in "Realities 1989", read Diet for a
      New America. Order from
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      Information about Softcopy

      Feel free to copy and distribute "Realities 1989". Please copy it in its entirety and, if hardcopy,
      please be sure that the reproduction is of good quality.

      The ASCII version of "Realities" had been copied in its entirety by Carol Hall of Harold Hill,
      Essex, England and distributed electronically by Ben Leamy (A68ls@pel.ac.uk) for the sole
      purpose of promoting a vegetarian lifestyle by education. Typing errors not found in the original
      may exist. All standard disclaimers apply. Further distribution in its entirety is encouraged.
      (Ben 24th July 1991)

      Thanks to Dilip Barman, president of the Triangle Vegetarian Society, who found the ASCII
      version on November 15th, 1995 and converted it to HTML for the web.